AN EVALUATIVE STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF TRAINING ON EMPLOYEE’S PRODUCTIVITY
Training can be defined as “a short term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose” (JS Chandan).
According to Fagbohungbe and Longe (1995: 74), “training is the process by which individual acquires the necessary requirements for a particular position i.e. skill, attitude, knowledge, information etc”.
Training is intended to provide learning experiences that will help people (employee) to perform more effectively in their present or future jobs.
Training is an important aspect of human resources management which is often neglected today, and this is not supposed to be so. We live in a changing world, a world where people and things change rapidly and continually. Now technologies and new work procedures emerge everyday. People’s attitudes, beliefs, values, behaviour and tastes, changes, supra environment is not static. In fact, there is a knowledge explosion in world which calls for additional and improved skills on the part of both the workers and management; hence, the need for training and re-training of staff to cope with a dynamic world (Achumba et al 1995).
From the narrow point of view, an organization trains staff to achieve higher performance in the job, which of course, is very important from a broader view point, training is under taken to raise the level of development of employees regardless of whether they stay with the organisation or seek employment elsewhere. It would be a benefit, on the part of the employee because he/she would be able to use it for future higher responsibility Peter. B (1981: 222).
On the points mentioned above there is no doubt that training of organization member is very crucial because a trained staff is more likely to be highly motivated, competent and consequently more productive.
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The need for training was recognized 50 years ago in the United States of America by Erwin Schell, with the help and support of Alfred P. Sloan, who prepared a one year experimental course for young executives of high potentials in 1931. At the close of world war III, the United States office of Education asked the Harvard Business School to set up the so-called “War Production refraining course for executives training from war service. The course operated many two years with lbo’s participants. The success of Harvard programmes caused many other training Schools to emerge in various professions. One of the training school that emerged then was the National Association of Credit management, whose programme was for executives in the industry. By the end of the 1950’s, there were 47 such training programme in America Bittel, (1995 297).
1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC.
The First Bank was the first successful bank to operate in Nigeria.
This name “First Bank” which was eventually adopted in 1979, is appropriate, having been conferred on the bank by history, being truly the First Bank to be successfully set up and managed on the Nigeria Soil, it also has endured a steady but tough banking terrain.
Like a mustard seed however, sown in a good soil, bank naturally germinated and grew into giant tree, spreading its numerous branches throughout the Nigerians land scape. Nigeria and indeed the former British West Africa was the fertile soil.
The establishment of First Bank of Nigeria Plc. predated the birth of Nigeria nation as a sovereign entity. The Bank which was registered as Bank of British West African in London as limited liability company with an horizon capital of $100,000 on March 31, 1894. The Head office of the Rank was at Liverpool. It has its branch in Lagos with staff strength of six, made up of three Europeans and three Africans. One of the Africans was E. 0. T. Johnson who later rose to the post of Senior African Clerk. At the Head Office, there were two staff members. The Bank directors were A. L. Jones who was the founding Chairman, Henry Coke was the Liverpool agent of David Sasson and company. F. W. Bond, who was chairman of African Steamship Company and Edward Lawrence, head of a Liverpool firm owned him. The Bank commenced with board member including the chairman, A. L. Jones.
A formal agreement of the Bank of British West African with the British secretary of state appointing BBWA to act as Government Banker, was signed on May 4, 1894. This followed some preliminary meeting held by the Board with the Gowon agents and Elder Dempster to formalize the Bank’s in corporation and also formally take over Lagos. The Agreement gave the bank the sole right to import silver coins free of change from the Royal mint and the permission to change a commission of 1% for supplying coins in the colony. The Directors of the new Bank was held on May 4, 1894. The actual commencement of the bank was August 1894 to enable the bank to meet necessary organisation requirements which include the formal constitution of the Board of Directors and the election of its chairman.
A. L. Jones was elected as chairman while, William Rose was secretary. In 1895, the First Annual General Meeting took place on July 17th. It was there that Mrican was perceive to be better off in the new market both at local and geographical extension of the market areas.
To support this strategy, there was free market and international trade which removed obstacles to free trade and movement of goods.
In 1896, a branch was opened in Accra, Gold Coast while, another was established in Freetown, Sierra Leone in 1898. This made a mile stone in the Bank’s International banking operation. The second opened in the old Calabar in 1900, and two years later, service was extended to the Northern Nigeria.
The Bank was incorporated in 1969 to become Standard Bank of Nigeria Ltd., in response to the Decree of 1968. A further change in the name of the Bank were made in 1979 to First Bank of Nigeria Limited and First Bank of Nigeria Plc in 1991.
The enhancement of level operation and the need to respond to increased competition have necessitated a considerable re-organization of the Bank. This really began in 1985 when a new decentralization structure was introduced. In 1992, a decentralization, decision making and a responsive directorate system have become pillars of the Bank. addition, computerization and efficient information management system have been introduced.
The bank’s rural banking record is unmatched by any other bank; into its agricultural credit facilities through the community farming loan scheme, the bank is seen to be on the right path.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of training and its effects on workers productivity with reference to First Bank of Nigeria Plc. To highlight the role that training plays in every organisation, regardless of size; The concept of training is of training is inevitable!
Apart from that, one would also realize that today is never the same with the and as a result, Managers are compelled to make the fullest possible use of human resources especially with the ever changing ideas and systems of organization. It becomes more important for employees to get constantly rather.
With keen competition and the emergency of new technologies, there is an era of unprecedented change. These changing conditions have created increased demand for managerial professional and technical talents in organisations along with, organizational training programmes for better performance.
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY
It is important to state the scope of study in this nature of research, this is to ensure objectivity and to enable the researcher obtain accurate information which will be used in analysis.
Data collection will be limited to the ministering department of the branches of the Bank.
In addition, the emphasis in this study is on the relationship between training and productivity; to examine if the content of employees duties are taken into consideration in the choice of training given. Also to know if the knowledge gained actually reflect in employees performance after training.
1.5 RESEARCH PROBLEM
Studies have shown that the problem of low productivity, high occurrence of accidents, high rate of labour turnover, frequent breakages and spoilage at work is closely related to a complete, lack of training or infrequent training for employees in most public organization in Nigeria.
As a result of the above, it can be concluded that training is necessary to ameliorate skill deficiency.
Furthermore this project will seek answer to the following questions:
1. Will training engender high morale of employee?
2. Will training reduce or eliminate accident rate at work place’?
3. Will training increase the opportunity for advancement of employees?
4. Improper training lead to frequent breakage and spoilage’s in service organisations and industries?
1.6 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
In order to achieve the objectives of this research the following hypotheses will be carried out with chi-squared statistical test of hypotheses.
1 Ho: Highly trained employees tends not to be more productive than untrained
Hi: Highly trained employees tend to be more productive than untrained employees.
2. Ho: That training tends not to reduce the number of accidents in the work place,
Hi: That training tends to reduce the number of accidents in the work place.
3 Ho: That training tends not to increase the opportunity for advancement of employees.
Hi: That training tends to increase the opportunity for advancement of employees.
4 Ho: The frequency of breakage’s and spoilage in service organisation tends not to be
higher when there is no proper training.
Hi: The frequency of breakage’s and spoilage in service organisation tends to be higher
when there is no proper training.
1.7 OPERATIONALISATION OF CONCEPTS
The term training has been defined by many authors as an aid in adjusting to work environment which is designed to increase the capability of individual or group in contributing to the attainment of’ the organizational goal.
Training as defined by A. A. Lawal (1982: 356) is concerned with the increasing knowledge and skill is doing a particular job. In other words, training is very important to every organisation because, the study refer to expose and emphasize on the need for organisations to appreciate scientific and systematic staff training and development in responds to today’s technological advancement, market competition and dynamism of the business environment.
It is the assimilation of facts and experience. Usually, it comes from books, listening and conversation (Bennett, 1994: 308)
Is the rate at which employees leave their present job to seek for a better job elsewhere (Pigors and Myers. 1984:221). The high rate of labour turnover increases cost and reduces productivity.
These are people paid to carry out a particular job in an organisation. (Ejiofor et. al, 1984: 16).
According to Beneath (1994: 308) skill can be defined as the ability to do something well, especially as a result of long practical experience.
Is the psychological state of employees with regards to their dependability, confidence and strength (Campbell et. al, 1970). It is also the state of mind outlook, enthusiasm, collective attitude, sensitivity and co-operation of an employee towards the organisation (Peter Bert, 1981: 223).
According to Richard Daft (1988:348) development refers to teaching managers and professionals the skills needed for both present and future jobs. It can be seen as any learning activity which is directed toward future requirements rather than present needs. It is concerned more with employee potential than with immediate skill, and more with career growth than immediate performance (Cole GA., 1995:3 14).
Dale Yole (1988 : 302) defines performances as yardstick for judging the effectiveness of individual groups and organisation. Performance can also be said to be the accomplishment of a goal.
Private organisation is one whose membership ranges between 2 and 50 and usually formed by family members. (Ogunleye. A. G. 2001)
A process by which individual attend to incoming stimuli and translate such stimuli into a message indicating the appropriate response (Peter Belt, 1981: 222).