CONSTRUCTION OF SOLAR STREET LIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM

CONSTRUCTION OF SOLAR STREET LIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

          This importance of light to every mankind cannot be over emphasized, even when the earth was created; the earth was illuminated with light which make it a place of living. This means, without light, the whole world is in darkness and as result of this, living things be it plants, animals or human beings cannot exist.

          This talking about lighting, it comes from two different sources, while could be natural or electrical. The former comes from the creator (God) while the latter is as a result of natural resources being utilized effectively by human beings. Since there is need for lighting, electric generation is employed to solve the problems people are facing during the day, especially at night when there is total darkness everywhere.

          Since the invention of electrical energy for lighting, it is quite obvious that it requires human intervention to control the switch either off when not in use or ON when the need arise. Due to this factor and poor supply of electricity, we have been able to find an alternative way generating electricity for the purpose of illumination which is highly efficient through the energy from the known as solar energy.

          This involves the use of a module called solar panel, which received the energy from the sun and covert it to electricity.

Basically, this project focused on the construction of operated automatic light. This a commercial quality light that can easily illuminate the streets and other areas of choice giving the potential of many years of trustworthy used with a minimum of maintained required.

          This four major component needed to construct or build a solar powered light are: high efficiency D.C temperature, charge controller and a battery. D.C. voltage. The basic circuiting on solar powered light consists of essential of an automatic battery charger, fed by the solar panel and a lighting controller automated for dusk to dawn operation. The charging voltage and current output of the solar panel.

To achieve the automatic operation of the light, a photocell or a timer, which senses the period of darkness and lightness is used to trigger.

The type of battery employed here is a maintained free one which is capable of supplying few days of backup power in case of bad weather or charger failure. Also the lamp used in this project work is D.C operated lamp.

1.1 Aims and Objective

  1. The aims and objectives of this project are follows 
  2. To utilize the naturally endowed resources.
  3. To power up a lighting system through solar energy.
  4. To control solar powered light automatically.
  5. To protect the solar form battery from quick deterioration as a result of continuous day and night working.

1.2     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This project design is centred on solar energy as fast growing technology for lighting with the use of a solar module. The automatic control process of the light can be achieved by a photocell. Or a timer which eliminates human intervention for manual switching or control.

1.3     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Every projects have its limitation. The major limitation of this project is that sunlight used to generate the electricity is not readily available especially at winter period. As a result, the light requires the need for a large batter to use in order to provide at last three days of stand by operation during cloudy weather without discharging the batter below its safe operating limit

 

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This significance of the construction of operated automatic light cannot be overemphasized in the sense that it is financially viable particularly in areas where the cost of providing a main supply is prohibitive. It has the capability of illuminating large surface area of land due to high efficiency of the lamp used.

1.5     DEFINITION OF TERMS

Alternative Energy: energy generated in ways that are less harmful to the environment because they are not as dependent on finite natural resources, particularly fossils fuels such as oil, gas natural gases. Examples are solar, wind, bio-geothermal and hydroelectric.

Balance of System (BOS): all the other physical parts that make up a solar system outside of the panel, inverters, wring mounting, hardware and monitoring system.

Efficiency: when referring to a solar cell or a solar panel, efficiency refers to the percentage of the sunlight captured and converted into usable electricity.

Ground Mounted Solar: a solar array installed on land, used primarily for large scale commercial and utility sale solar projects such as power plants that generate power from thousands of homes and businesses.

Modules: another name for a solar panel. Mounting Hardware- they racking and mounting equipment used to secured solar panels to rooftops or to trackers in ground mounted power plant installation and each other often made with lightweight aluminium frames and clips capable of withstanding the element while minimum impacts to the roof.

Solar batteries (or storage): solar storage system are comprised of high capacity rechargeable batteries (or battery banks) that can store excess energy generated by a solar system for use as a light or as a backup during emergency grid outages or other times when the solar incorporate a variety of technologies including lead acid, lithium-ion or flow batteries.

1.6     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This project is carried out so as to provide an alternative means of generating electricity through sunlight for lighting purpose. Also, the effective utilization of natural resources.

          This components required in carrying out this project are solar panel, battery charge controller, bulb are efficient enough to yield the desired result without the use of power converter.

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