Female genital mutilation, a procedure that intentionally alters or cause injury to the female genital organ for non-medical reasons. 

          It is a partial or total removal of the external female genital organ. A practice which is mostly carried out on young girls sometimes between infancy and adolescence, occasionally in adult women. It is most common in the western eastern and north eastern regions of Africa.

Now, female genital mutilation involves the partial or total removal of the clitoris a small sensitive and erectile part of the female genitals), and in very rare cases, only the prepuce (the fold of skin surrounding the clitoris)  this process is called the CLITERIDECTONY.

It is also the partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia mijora (the inner fold of the vulva), or without excision of the labia majora (the outer fold of skin of the vulva). This process is called EXCISION. 

It is also the narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of the covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting and repositioning the labia majora. Labia majora sometimes through stitching with or without removal of the Clitoris. This process is called INFIBULATTON. 

Lastly, the female genital mutilation also includes all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, e.g. Pricking, Piercing, incising, scraping and cauterizing  genital area.       

This practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who often play other central roles in communities such as attending child births.  In many settings, health care providers perform this act due to a fallacy in their believe that the procedure is safe when medicalized. The world health  organization strongly urges health professions not to perform such Procedures   


This act is internationally recognized as a violation of the human rights of  girls and women, it reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sex and  constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women: so therefore  the consequences of this acts are:

  1. Excessive bleeding (haemorrhage) 
  2. Infections e.g. tetanus 
  3. Injury to surrounding genital tissue 
  4. Shock 
  5. Death 
  6. Fever 
  7. Severe pain
  8. Urinary problems (painful urination, tract infection)
  9. Wound healing problems 
  10. Psychological problem (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress  disorder, low-self esteem etc.) 
  11. Sexual problems (pain during intercourse, decreased satisfaction, etc) 
  12. Vaginal problem (discharge, itching, bacterial vaginosis etc).       


  1. World health organization had issue a joint statement against the  practice together with the United Nations children's fund and the  united nation population fund so, since 1997, great efforts have been  made to counteract female genital mutilation, work within  communities, and changes in public policy. Progress at international,  national and sub-national levels so, to stop this. 
  2. Laws were emerged against it in 26 countries in Africa and the Middle  East as well as 33 other countries with migrant populations from  female genital mutilation Practicing countries. 
  3. Efforts from the world health organization towards the solution for this obnoxious acts were 
  1. Strengthening the health sector response; guidelines, tools,  training and policy to ensure that health professionals can  provide medical care and counselling to girls and women living  female genital mutilation. In other worlds, competent medical  practitioners should be put in place. 
  2. Build evidence: making a kind of awareness for people to know  the causes and consequences of the practice. Also, let them  know why the health care are coming in to care for those who  have experience the female genital mutilation. 
  3. Increasing advocacy: developing publications and advocacy tools  for international regional and local efforts to end female genital  mutilation within a generation.       


Having understood what female genital mutilation entails, how it is  mostly practice in the African region. Having the clue of how this act has  resulted in negative effects to the woman system, and also knowing the  possible solution to do away with this practice.